GF 677: Obtained by INRA (France). Crossing of peach (Prunus persica) x almond (Prunus amigdalus). It is the most used rootstock in the European fruit growing in recent decades. It has an excellent affinity with varieties of peaches, nectarines, almonds and some varieties of plum trees. It adapts well to limestone soils and tolerates well ferric chlorosis. Moderate tolerance to drought and root asphyxia. It is one of the most sensitive rootstocks to nematodes. It confers a high vigour.

GXN (Garnem): Obtained by CITA (Aragón, Spain). Cross of Garfi almond (Prunus amigdalus) x Nemared peach (Prunus persica). Rootstock with less tolerance to root asphyxia and limestone soils than GF 677, it confers enhanced resistance to nematodes and a greater vigour. It is compatible with peach, nectarine, almond and some plums trees.

Cadaman ®Avimag: rootstock which is compatible with all varieties of peaches, nectarines and plums and some almonds. It anticipates the harvest time, especially of early varieties, providing a more intense colour to the fruit. It gives less vigour than GF-677 or GXN. It is the most resistant rootstock to nematodes of the rootstocks usually used. Its main disadvantages are its sensitivity to Phytopthora and its necessity of cold periods.

Mariana 26/24: rootstock which is compatible with plum and some varieties of apricot. It adapts well to replanting conditions, due to its resistance to many soil pathogens. It has a very high vigour and is the most resistant rootstock to root asphyxia. It has moderate resistance to nematodes and limestone soils.

Monclar: frank peach tree clonal selection. It has good affinity with varieties of peaches, nectarines, almonds, and some varieties of apricot trees.  It gives less vigour than peach x almond hybrids. It is sensitive to nematodes, root asphyxia and Agrobacterium. It has low resistance to limestone soils.

Mirabolano 29/C: Mirabolano selection from California. It is the most widely used rootstock for modern varieties of apricot, being also compatible with plum. It gives a high vigour; it is resistant to root-knot nematodes, and moderately resistant to Agrobacterium and Armillaria. It is well-adapted to wet and not very fertile soils.

Canino Clon 9/7: production from controlled and under certification process seed. It gives the plant a good root system, high vigour. It responds well in both wet and dry land, but it prefers loose and aerated soils. It has good affinity with all varieties of apricot. The clone 9/7 selected by the IVIA provides greater homogeneity compared to other rootstock from seed.

Bridge grafting (intermediate wood): This format for plant production, especially apricot production, is reaching a height in the recent years. It comprises a hybrid rootstock grafted with a variety of peach, where subsequently it would be grafted the chosen apricot variety. It provides a greater production, a fruit of larger size and an advance of the ripening date.

Rootpac Series: Selection of different rootstock obtained by Agromillora Ibérica.


Diospyros Lotus: khaki rootstock. It confers high-medium vigour; its root system lacks of taproot, forming on the surface a dense root system which gives little resistance to drought. Good affinity with astringent varieties, being incompatible with the non-astringent. It is a bit sensitive to cold at the budding period. It adapts well to limestone soils, tolerating nematodes. Rootstock very sensitive to salinity, especially to chlorides accumulation, it needs plots with higher amounts of organic matter to 1.5 / 2.0%.

Diospyros Virginiana: khaki rootstock. It has a high vigour, being 100% compatible with astringent and non-astringent varieties. It has a root system consisted of a strong, deep taproot that gives it a high resistance to drought. Its irrigation needs and nutrition are approximately 50% lower than D. Lotus rootstock. The immediate production of the plants in land is not suitable due to their lack of an abundant plant rooting system. It is advised a plant production in a container for its later transplanting to the land. Its budding period is 10 day later than D. Lotus one, a feature that gives it a lower frost risks, being equally sensitive. It is tolerant to Agrobacterium and limestone soils. It confers a delayed ripening period than D. Lotus, approximately 10/15 days later. Out-crop of sprouts from the base of the trunk and roots is usual, so it would be better to use no-till planting system, it is also recommended the application of herbicides to its control. As an outstanding quality, we can remark its high resistance to chloride salinity. Its main drawback is the need to control its vigour through irrigation, nutrition and if necessary with regulatory treatments to get the desired output.

Diospyros Kaki: khaki pattern. It is the oldest pattern known of khaki growing in Spain, and especially in the areas of origin. Its characteristics are very similar to D. Virginiana, so its diffusion is not very high.